Business Research Method Assignment Of Deed

Unformatted text preview: ANNAMALAI UNIVERSITY MBA SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS Provided by SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS JUNCTION +91-9911899400 (What’s App) Visit us at 2.7.2 BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS 1. Process of data implies, editing, coding, classifications and tabulation in research methodology Process. Examine the statement with a suitable example. Solution: The data, after collection, has to be processed and analysed in accordance with the outline laid down for the purpose at the time of developing the research plan. After collecting data, the method of converting raw data into meaningful statement; includes data processing, data analysis, and data interpretation and presentation. Data reduction or processing mainly involves various manipulations necessary for preparing the data for analysis. The process (of manipulation) could be manual or electronic. It involves editing, categorizing the open-ended questions, coding, computerization and preparation of tables and diagrams. 1) Editing data: Information gathered during data collection may lack uniformity. Example: Data collected through questionnaire and schedules may have answers which may not be ticked at proper places, or some questions may be left unanswered. Sometimes information may be given in a form which needs reconstruction in a category designed for analysis, e.g., converting daily/monthly income in annual income and so on. The researcher has to take a decision as to how to edit it. Editing also needs that data are relevant and appropriate and errors are modified. Occasionally, the investigator makes a mistake and records and impossible answer. “How many red chillies do you use in a month” The answer is written as “4 kilos”. Can a family of three members use four kilo chillies in a month? The correct answer could be “0.4 kilo”. 2) Coding of data: Coding is translating answers into numerical values or assigning numbers to the various categories of a variable to be used in data analysis. Coding is done by using a code book, code sheet, and a computer card. Coding is done on the basis of the instructions given in the codebook. The code book gives a numerical code for each variable. Now-a-days, codes are assigned before going to the field while constructing the questionnaire/schedule. Pose data collection; pre-coded items are fed to the computer for processing and analysis. For open-ended questions, however, post-coding is necessary. In such cases, all answers to open-ended questions are placed in categories and each category is assigned a code. 3) Data classification/distribution: Sarantakos (1998: 343) defines distribution of data as a form of classification of scores obtained for the various categories or a particular variable. There are four types of distributions. Frequency distribution: In social science research, frequency distribution is very common. It presents the frequency of occurrences of certain categories. This distribution appears in two forms: o Ungrouped: Here, the scores are not collapsed into categories, e.g., distribution of ages of the students of a BJ (MC) class, each age value (e.g., 18, 19, 20, and so on) will be presented separately in the distribution. o Grouped: Here, the scores are collapsed into categories, so that 2 or 3 scores are presented together as a group. For example, in the above age distribution groups like 18-20, 21-22 etc., can be formed) Percentage distribution: It is also possible to give frequencies not in absolute numbers but in percentages. For instance instead of saying 200 respondents of total 2000 had a monthly income of less than Rs. 500, we can say 10% of the respondents have a monthly income of less than Rs. 500. Cumulative distribution: It tells how often the value of the random variable is less than or equal to a particular reference value. Statistical data distribution: In this type of data distribution, some measure of average is found out of a sample of respondents. Several kind of averages are available (mean, median, mode) and the researcher must decide which is most suitable to his purpose. Once the average has been calculated, the question arises: how representative a figure it is, i.e., how closely the answers are bunched around it. Are most of them very close to it or is there a wide range of variation? Classification according to attributes: As stated above, data are classified on the basis of common characteristics which can either be descriptive (such as literacy, sex, honesty, etc.) or numerical (such as weight, height, income, etc.). Descriptive characteristics refer to qualitative phenomenon which cannot be measured quantitatively; only their presence or absence in an individual item can be noticed. Data obtained this way on the basis of certain attributes are known as statistics of attributes and their classification is said to be classification according to attributes. Such classification can be simple classification or manifold classification. In simple classification we consider only one attribute and divide the universe into two classes—one class consisting of items possessing the given attribute and the other class consisting of items which do not possess the given attribute. But in manifold classification we consider two or more attributes simultaneously, and divide that data into a number of classes (total number of classes of final order is given by 2n, where n = number of attributes considered). Whenever data are classified according to attributes, the researcher must see that the attributes are defined in such a manner that there is least possibility of any doubt/ambiguity concerning the said attributes. Classification according to class-intervals: Unlike descriptive characteristics, the numerical characteristics refer to quantitative phenomenon which can be measured through some statistical units. Data relating to income, production, age, weight, etc. come under this category. Such data are known as statistics of variables and are classified on the basis of class intervals. For instance, persons whose incomes, say, are within Rs 201 to Rs 400 can form one group, those whose incomes are within Rs 401 to Rs 600 can form another group and so on. In this way the entire data may be divided into a number of groups or classes or what are usually called, ‘classintervals.’ Each group of class-interval, thus, has an upper limit as well as a lower limit which are known as class limits. The difference between the two class limits is known as class magnitude. We may have classes with equal class magnitudes or with unequal class magnitudes. The number of items which fall in a given class is known as the frequency of the given class. All the classes or groups, with their respective frequencies taken together and put in the form of a table, are described as group frequency distribution or simply frequency distribution. 4) Tabulation of data: After editing, which ensures that the information on the schedule is accurate and categorized in a suitable form, the data are put together in some kinds of tables and may also undergo some other forms of statistical analysis. Table can be prepared manually and/or by computers. For a small study of 100 to 200 persons, there may be little point in tabulating by computer since this necessitates putting the data on punched cards. But for a survey analysis involving a large number of respondents and requiring cross tabulation involving more than two variables, hand tabulation will be inappropriate and time consuming. Usefulness of tables: Tables are useful to the researchers and the readers in three ways: The present an overall view of findings in a simpler way. They identify trends. They display relationships in a comparable way between parts of the findings. By convention, the dependent variable is presented in the rows and the independent variable in the columns. 2. “Empirical Research in India creates so many problems for researchers”. State the problems that are usually faced by young researcher. Solution: Empirical Research Empirical Research is research that is based on experimentation or observation, i.e. Evidence. Such research is often conducted to answer a specific question or to test a hypothesis (educated guess). Empirical research is research using empirical evidence. It is a way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or experience. Empiricism values such research more than other kinds. Empirical evidence (the record of one's direct observations or experiences) can be analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively. Through quantifying the evidence or making sense of it in qualitative form, a researcher can answer empirical questions, which should be clearly defined and answerable with the evidence collected (usually called data). Research design varies by field and by the question being investigated. Many researchers combine qualitative and quantitative forms of analysis to better answer questions which cannot be studied in laboratory settings, particularly in the social sciences and in education. Researchers in India, particularly those engaged in empirical research, are facing several problems. Some of the important problems are as follows: 1) The lack of a scientific training in the methodology of research is a great impediment for researchers in our country. There is paucity of competent researchers. Many researchers take a leap in the dark without knowing research methods. Most of the work, which goes in the name of research, is not methodologically sound. Research for many researchers and even to their guides, is mostly a scissor and paste job without any insight shed on the collated materials. The consequence is obvious, viz., the research results, quite often, do not reflect the reality or realities. Thus, a systematic study of research methodology is an urgent necessity. Before undertaking research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects. As such, efforts should be made to provide short duration intensive courses for meeting this requirement. 2) There is insufficient interaction between the university research departments on one side and business establishments, government departments and research institutions on the other side. A great deal of primary data of non-confidential nature remains untouched / untreated by the researchers for want of proper contacts. Efforts should be made to develop satisfactory liaison among all concerned for better and realistic researches. There is need for developing some mechanisms of a university—industry interaction programme so that academics can get ideas from practitioners on what needs to be researched and practitioners can apply the research done by the academics. 3) Most of the business units in our country do not have the confidence that the material supplied by them to researchers will not be misused and as such they are often reluctant in supplying the needed information to researchers. The concept of secrecy seems to be sacrosanct to business organisations in the country so much so that it proves an impermeable barrier to researchers. Thus, there is the need for generating the confidence that the information/data obtained from a business unit will not be misused. 4) Research studies overlapping one another are undertaken quite often for want of adequate information. This results in duplication and fritters away resources. This problem can be solved by proper compilation and revision, at regular intervals, of a list of subjects on which and the places where the research is going on. Due attention should be given toward identification of research problems in various disciplines of applied science which are of immediate concern to the industries. 5) There is no existence of a code of conduct for researchers and inter-university and interdepartmental rivalries are also quite common. Hence, there is need for developing a code of conduct for researchers which, if adhered sincerely, can win over this problem. 6) Many researchers in our country also face the difficulty of adequate and timely secretarial assistance, including computer assistance. This causes unnecessary delays in the completion of research studies. All possible efforts be made in this direction so that efficient secretarial assistance is made available to researchers and that too well in time. University Grants Commission must play a dynamic role in solving this difficulty. 7) Library management and functioning is not satisfactory at many places and much of the time and energy of researchers are spent in tracing out the books, journals, reports, etc., rather than in tracing out relevant material from them. 8) There is also the problem that many of our libraries are not able to get copies of old and new Acts/Rules, reports and other government publications in time. This problem is felt more in libraries which are away in places from Delhi and/or the state capitals. Thus, efforts should be made for the regular and speedy supply of all governmental publications to reach our libraries. 9) There is also the difficulty of timely availability of published data from various government and other agencies doing this job in our country. Researcher also faces the problem on account of the fact that the published data vary quite significantly because of differences in coverage by the concerning agencies. 10) There may, at times, take place the problem of conceptualization and also problems relating to the process of data collection and related things. 3. “Interpretation is an art of drawing inference depending upon the skill researcher”. Elucidate the given statement with various techniques interpretation. 4. Experimental method of research is not suitable in Management field”. Discuss. What are the problems in the introduction of this research design, business organization? ...
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