Luigi English Term Paper

This article is about the Nintendo character. For other uses, see Luigi (disambiguation). For other people by the name, see Luigi (name).

Luigi(Japanese: ルイージ,Hepburn: Ruīji, [ɾɯ.iː.ʑi]) (English:; Italian: [luˈiːdʒi]) is a fictional character featured in video games and related media released by Nintendo. Created by prominent game designer Shigeru Miyamoto, Luigi is portrayed as the slightly younger but taller fraternal twin brother of Nintendo's mascot Mario, and appears in many games throughout the Mario franchise, often as a sidekick to his brother.

Luigi first appeared in the 1983 arcade game Mario Bros. as the character controlled by the second player, and retained this role in Super Mario Bros., Super Mario Bros. 3, Super Mario World, and other titles. The first game where he was available as a primary character was Super Mario Bros. 2. In more recent appearances, Luigi's role became increasingly restricted to spinoffs such as the Mario Party and Mario Kart series, though he has been featured in a starring role on three occasions: first in the 1991 educational game Mario Is Missing!, in Luigi's Mansion for the Nintendo GameCube in 2001, and in Luigi's Mansion: Dark Moon for the 3DS. In all three of these games, he is called upon to act as the hero because Mario, the usual hero within the franchise, is in need of rescue. Luigi has also appeared in every episode of the three DiC TV series based on the NES and Super NES games.

Originally developed as a palette swap of Mario with a green color scheme instead of red, Luigi has since developed a personality and style of his own. As his role in the Mario series progressed, Luigi evolved into a physically distinct character, taller and thinner than his brother. Nintendo called the period of March 2013 to March 2014 "The Year of Luigi" to commemorate the thirtieth anniversary of the character's existence. Correspondingly, games released in 2013 emphasised Luigi, such as Luigi's Mansion: Dark Moon, Mario & Luigi: Dream Team, Dr. Luigi, and the level pack New Super Luigi U for New Super Mario Bros U. An unlockable Luigi-themed version of Mario Bros. titled Luigi Bros. was also included with Super Mario 3D World.

Concept and creation

The events leading to Luigi's creation began in 1982, during the development of Donkey Kong, where the Nintendo designer Shigeru Miyamoto had created Mario (then known as "Jumpman") hoping that he would be able to recast the character in a variety of roles in future games.[1] Miyamoto had been inspired by the game Joust to create a game with a simultaneous two-player mode, which led to his development of the game Mario Bros. in 1983, with Luigi filling the role of Mario's brother as the second playable character.[2] Luigi's name is said to have been inspired by a pizza parlor near Nintendo of America's headquarters in Redmond, Washington, called "Mario & Luigi's".[2] Miyamoto observed that the word ruiji means "similar" in the Japanese language, and that Luigi was designed to have the same size, shape and gameplay of Mario.[3]

While Mario was originally portrayed as a carpenter in Donkey Kong, the duo of Mario and Luigi in Mario Bros. were styled as Italian plumbers by Miyamoto, on the suggestion of a colleague.[4] Software constraints of the time—similar to those that gave Mario his distinctive look in Donkey Kong—meant Luigi's first appearance was restricted to a simple palette swap of Mario designed to represent the second player. Graphically and in terms of gameplay, the characters were completely identical, except for their color schemes;[5] the green color scheme adopted for Luigi would remain one of his defining physical characteristics in subsequent releases.

After the success of Mario Bros., Luigi was introduced to a wider audience in 1985 with the release of the console game Super Mario Bros. Once again his role was restricted to a palette swap of Mario, functioning as the second-player in a similar fashion to Mario Bros.. The later Japan-only version of Super Mario Bros. 2 in 1986 (later released in the west as Super Mario Bros.: The Lost Levels) marked the beginning of Luigi's development toward becoming a more distinguished character. As with his previous appearances, Luigi remained a palette swap of Mario; however, his movement was no longer identical. Luigi could now jump higher and farther than his brother, at the expense of movement response and precision.[6]

While this version of Super Mario Bros. 2 was released in Japan, it was deemed to be too difficult for American audiences at the time.[4] In 1988, consequently, an alternative release was developed to serve as Super Mario Bros. 2 for western players (and later released in Japan as Super Mario USA); this version would play a key role in shaping Luigi's current appearance.[4] The game was a conversion of Yume Kōjō: Doki Doki Panic, with the graphics altered to represent characters and scenes from the Mario franchise. In this release, the character of "Mama", who had the highest jump among the original cast, served as the template for Luigi, resulting in his taller, thinner look, combined with his Marioesque outfit and ubiquitous green color scheme. There were earlier appearances of Luigi being taller than Mario: in the 1988 Famicom Disk System game Famicom Grand Prix II: 3D Hot Rally and earlier, in a very rare 1986 anime Super Mario Bros.: Peach-Hime Kyushutsu Dai Sakusen! (though in the anime he wore a yellow shirt and the color of his hat and overalls were blue). Promotional artwork for Super Mario Bros. 3 and Super Mario World depicts Luigi with this new look; but the actual games would not adapt this different character design in-game until the 1992 game Super Mario Kart. Luigi's distinctive appearance from the Yume Kōjō: Doki Doki Panic-inspired version of Super Mario Bros. 2 has been used ever since, even for remakes of games in which he was originally a palette swap.

Actor portrayal

Much like his appearance, Luigi's vocal portrayal has fluctuated over the years. In Mario Kart 64, which voiced many characters for the first time, some characters, including Luigi, had two different voices according to the region of the game: North American and European versions feature a low-pitched voice for Luigi, provided by Charles Martinet, who also voices Mario, Wario, Waluigi, and Toadsworth, whereas the Japanese version uses a high-pitched, falsetto voice, provided by (then French translator at Nintendo) Julien Bardakoff. All versions of Mario Party feature Bardakoff's high-pitched clips from Mario Kart 64. Luigi retained this higher voice in Mario Party 2. In Mario Golf, Mario Tennis, and Mario Party 3, his voice returned to a lower state. Since then, with the exceptions of Mario Kart: Super Circuit and Super Smash Bros. Melee, Luigi has consistently had a medium-pitched voice. In Mario Kart: Super Circuit, Luigi's voice was the same high voice from the Japanese Mario Kart 64. In Super Smash Bros. and Super Smash Bros. Melee, Luigi's voice is made up of clips from Mario's voice taken from Super Mario 64, with raised pitches. In Super Smash Bros. Brawl, he has his own voice (which is medium-pitched) instead of a pitched-up version of Mario's.


Luigi is portrayed as the taller, younger brother of Mario, and he is usually seen dressed in a green shirt with dark blue overalls.[7] Although Luigi is a plumber,[7] like his brother, other facets of his personality vary from game to game. Luigi always seems nervous and timid but is good-natured and not as quick to anger as his more famous brother. A baby version of the character named Baby Luigi debuted in Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island, who is held captive by Kamek. He also appeared in Mario & Luigi: Partners in Time as a playable character along with Baby Mario. He is voiced by Charles Martinet, just like his adult self.

While it has not been made official, Daisy may be Luigi's romantic interest. They were a romantic couple in the Super Mario Bros. film[citation needed] and in Mario Kart Wii they are seen in statue dancing together. She was his caddy in NES Open Tournament Golf[8] as Peach was to Mario. Also on Daisy's trophy in Super Smash Bros. Melee, it says that she is possibly Luigi's answer to Mario's Peach.[9]


Nintendo did not initially give Luigi a surname. The first notable use of "Luigi Mario" was in the 1993 live-action film adaptation. In September 2015, at the Super Mario Bros. 30th Anniversary festival, Miyamoto stated that Mario's full name was Mario Mario. Consequently, this indirectly confirms Luigi's full name as Luigi Mario.[10][11]


Main article: List of Luigi video games

Luigi's first appearance was in the 1983 arcade game Mario Bros.[7] as the character controlled by the second player. He retained this role in Wrecking Crew. He later appeared in Super Mario Bros.[7] for the NES, and again in Super Mario Bros.: The Lost Levels, Super Mario Bros. 2, Super Mario Bros. 3, and Super Mario World. Super Mario Bros. 2 introduced Luigi as the taller of the two brothers, as well as the better jumper. Super Mario Bros. 3, and Super Mario World returned to featuring Luigi as a reskinned Mario. He made a minor appearance in his baby form in Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island. Luigi was conspicuously absent in Super Mario 64 and Super Mario Sunshine. However, the Nintendo DS remake of Super Mario 64 features him as a playable character alongside Mario, Yoshi, and Wario. He received his own starring role in the Nintendo GameCube game Luigi's Mansion, where he wins a mansion from a contest he never entered, and saves Mario from King Boo. Luigi's Mansion has cultivated such a cult following that Nintendo made a sequel to the game nearly a decade after the original game's release date. The sequel is called Luigi's Mansion: Dark Moon and is playable on the Nintendo 3DS.[12]

Luigi has been associated with the more difficult second acts of multiple Super Mario games.[13] These include The Lost Levels, Super Mario Galaxy 2, New Super Luigi U and the new game plus in Super Mario 3D Land, which offer more challenging elaborations on their respective predecessors and allow the player to use Luigi as the main character, in whom reduced friction and higher jumping is consistent in all of these games. Luigi became playable in the Nintendo DS game New Super Mario Bros. as a hidden character, and as a hidden character in the Wii game Super Mario Galaxy. In its sequel, Super Mario Galaxy 2, the player can switch out for Luigi throughout the game.[14] He also appears as a playable character in New Super Mario Bros. Wii, where four players can play at once cooperatively as Mario, Luigi, and two Toads. He also appears in Super Mario 3D Land as a playable character as well as New Super Mario Bros. 2 and New Super Mario Bros. U, the latter having a DLC mode, where he is the main character, called New Super Luigi U. It has levels altered to his specific play abilities, including higher jumping. The DLC is also available as a standalone retail version. Luigi also appeared in Super Mario 3D World along with his brother, Peach, Rosalina and Toad.

Luigi appears in many of the Mario spin-offs, including Mario Kart, Mario Party, and Mario sports titles. He also appears all four installments of the Super Smash Bros. series; in the first three installments, he is an unlockable character.

Luigi has appeared in every Mario role-playing game. While he originally made a cameo appearance in the end credits of Super Mario RPG, he appears more prominently in the Paper Mario series. He is a non-playable character in the original Paper Mario. In the sequel Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door, he appears yet again as a non-playable character, going on a separate adventure from Mario's. Super Paper Mario features him as a playable character after he is initially brainwashed into working for the antagonist under the name "Mr. L." The Mario & Luigi series features Luigi as a main protagonist; the events of the game focus on him and his brother Mario. He has appeared in all five Mario & Luigi games.

Other media

See also: Super Mario Bros.: Peach-Hime Kyushutsu Dai Sakusen!, Super Mario Bros. (film), and Super Mario Bros. (TV series)

Luigi made his animated debut in the 1986 film Super Mario Bros.: The Great Mission to Save Princess Peach!. In the film, he was voiced by Yū Mizushima and had a different color scheme than he has today, sporting a blue cap, blue overalls, and a yellow shirt. This was because he was not yet given a consistent color scheme. In the film, Luigi was very greedy and even left Mario at one point to look for coins. He was also a little more serious than his brother Mario, who constantly would daydream about Princess Peach, although he is not as brave as Mario.[citation needed]

Luigi later made an appearance in the third of a trilogy of OVAs entitled Amada Anime Series: Super Mario Bros. released in 1989, in which the Mario characters acted out the story of Snow White. He appears at the end of the video to save Mario and Peach from the Wicked Queen, portrayed by Koopa.

Luigi regularly appeared in The Super Mario Bros. Super Show!, airing from 1989 to 1990, which cast Danny Wells as both his live-action portrayal and voice. Like his brother, Luigi's voice actor changed in later cartoons, in his case to Tony Rosato. Even though he was not the starring character in the show, Luigi appeared in all 91 episodes of the three DiC Mario cartoons, in one of which his brother himself did not appear ("Life's Ruff" from The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3).

Luigi played a different role in the Super Mario Bros. film, where he was portrayed by John Leguizamo.[15] He was a more easy-going character in contrast to the cynical Mario, portrayed by Bob Hoskins,[15]) in the film.

Luigi has also appeared in several Robot Chicken sketches, always alongside Mario.[citation needed] In one sketch, he and Mario accidentally appear in Vice City, from the Grand Theft Auto series, while another features them competing in a Cannonball Run-styled car race.[citation needed]

In 2015, game designer Josh Millard released Ennuigi which relates the story of Luigi's inability to come to terms with the lack of narrative in the original Super Mario Bros.[16][17][18] Reception regarding Luigi's character in Ennuigi ranged from "depressed,"[19] "laconic,"[20] "perpetually miserable,"[21] to "an angsty teenager who just finished writing a book report about Albert Camus' The Stranger."[17] In a Reddit thread, Millard commented "I [...] think it's a pretty weird implied narrative once you step back and look at it, and enjoyed funneling some thoughts about all that into a recharacterization of Luigi as a guy who's as legitimately confused and distressed by his strange life as you'd expect a person to be once removed from the bubble of cartoony context of the franchise."[22]

Year of Luigi

On March 19, 2013, Nintendo began the Year of Luigi. This included a year of Luigi-themed games like Dr. Luigi, Mario & Luigi Dream Team, and New Super Luigi U. A Luigi's Mansion statue was released on Club Nintendo. On March 19, 2014, the Year of Luigi ended.[23]


Since his appearance in Super Mario Bros., Luigi has received highly positive reception. Nintendo Power listed Luigi as their fifth favourite hero, citing his dependability while describing him as being an underdog. They also listed him as having one of the best mustaches.[24]GameDaily listed the "neglected guy" as one of their top 25 video game archetypes, citing Luigi as an example and stating that he lacks the charisma of his brother Mario and that he should get another starring role.[25] They also listed Luigi's Poltergust 3000 from Luigi's Mansion as one of the top 25 Nintendo gimmicks.[26]UGO Networks ranked Luigi at #16 on their "25 Most Memorable Italians in Video Games" list, ranking him over Mario himself.[27]

Luigi has been featured in many "Top Sidekicks" lists. Machinima placed Luigi as the best sidekick on gaming on their "Top 10 Sidekicks in Gaming" list.[28] He was also listed as the best sidekick in video games by Maximum PC.[29]IGN ranked him at #2 on their top 10 list, commenting "No pair illustrates brotherly love like Mario and Luigi".[30] Luigi is also ranked at #2 on ScrewAttack's top 10 list, where they comment that even though he does everything Mario does, he gets none of the glory.[31] WhatCulture listed him at #5 on their top 20 list, adding that a Mario game doesn't seem like a Mario game without Luigi.[32]Maxim listed Luigi as the second most underrated sidekick, behind Waylon Smithers.[33]


External links

This emblem appears on Luigi's hat and as a symbol for him in many game interfaces.
The arcade version of Mario Bros., released in 1983, featured Luigi (right) in his debut appearance as a palette swap of Mario.
  1. ^Demaria, R: "High Score! The Illustrated History of Electronic Games", page 238. McGraw Hill-Osbourne, 2002
  2. ^ ab"Mario Bros. Arcade". International Arcade Museum. Retrieved 2006-08-14. 
  3. ^"New Straits Times – Google News Archive Search". Retrieved 30 December 2016. 
  4. ^ abcMcLaughlin, Rus (8 November 2007). "The History of Super Mario Bros". IGN. Archived from the original on 14 February 2008. Retrieved 7 January 2010. 
  5. ^"Nintendo's Shining Star: The History of Mario". Gamecubicle. Retrieved 2006-12-16. 
  6. ^Hayward, Andrew. (2007-10-01) VC Update: Sin and Punishment, Mario: Lost LevelsArchived 2011-06-29 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 2008-04-14.
  7. ^ abcd"Luigi Biography". IGN. Archived from the original on 2009-08-17. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  8. ^"IGN: Princess Daisy Biography". 2010-07-07. Archived from the original on 2007-11-29. Retrieved 2010-08-10. 
  9. ^2002. Nintendo. "Trophy Gallery" on Super Smash Bros. Melee game disc.
  10. ^"【衝撃事実】ついに任天堂公式のマリオの本名が判明!任天堂の代表取締役・宮本茂氏が明かす" [[Impact] fact finally found real name of Nintendo official of Mario! Reveal the representative director, Shigeru Miyamoto of Nintendo] (in Japanese). September 14, 2015. 
  11. ^"Miyamoto says Mario & Luigi's surname is "Mario"". September 14, 2015. 
  12. ^Brown, Andrew (June 7, 2011). "Luigi's Mansion 2 to Haunt Nintendo 3DS". Nintendo World Report. 
  13. ^Jeremy Parish (June 25, 2013). "New Super Luigi U Review". USGamer. Retrieved April 3, 2015. 
  14. ^Words: Henry Gilbert, GamesRadar US. "Luigi in Mario Galaxy 2? Official Japanese site says yes, Super Mario Galaxy 2 Wii News". GamesRadar. Retrieved 2010-08-10. 
  15. ^ ab"At the Movies:Super Mario Bros". Archived from the original on September 21, 2008. Retrieved January 25, 2010. 
  16. ^Billock, Jennifer (August 6, 2015). "One of the Mario Bros. has an existential crisis in the new game Ennuigi". The A.V. Club. The Onion, Inc. Retrieved August 31, 2016. 
  17. ^ abMaiberg, Emanuel (August 17, 2015). "Uh Oh, Luigi Read Some Derrida and Now He's 'Ennuigi'". Motherboard. Retrieved August 31, 2016. 
  18. ^Schneider, Martin (August 6, 2015). "'Ennuigi': Nintendo for pretentious existentialists". Dangerous Minds. Retrieved August 31, 2016. 
  19. ^Good, Owen S. (August 27, 2016). "Bored? I'll show you boredom. Play 'Ennuigi'". Polygon. Retrieved August 31, 2016. 
  20. ^Gera, Emily (August 16, 2015). "Ennuigi: Bringing Existential Angst To Super Mario". Rock, Paper, Shotgun. Rock Paper Shotgun Ltd. Retrieved August 31, 2016. 
  21. ^Prell, Sam (August 12, 2015). "A chain-smoking Luigi is your forlorn guide through life in Ennuigi". GamesRadar. Retrieved August 31, 2016. 
  22. ^Messner, Steven (August 29, 2016). "In Ennuigi you play a depressed, chain-smoking Luigi who's lost all hope". PC Gamer. Retrieved August 31, 2016. 
  23. ^"Miyamoto puts an official end to the Year of Luigi". Retrieved 30 December 2016. 
  24. ^Nintendo Power 250th issue!. South San Francisco, California: Future US. 2010. pp. 40, 47. 
  25. ^Chris Buffa (2009-01-23). "Gallery and Images". GameDaily. Retrieved 2010-08-10. [dead link]
  26. ^Chris Buffa (2009-06-19). "Gallery and Images". GameDaily. Archived from the original on June 26, 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-10. 
  27. ^Meli, Marissa (2010-08-25). "Top 25 Italians In Video Games". Archived from the original on 2010-08-29. Retrieved 2011-12-30. 
  28. ^"Top 10 Sidekicks in Gaming". Retrieved 2011-12-30 – via YouTube. 
  29. ^"Thanks Buddy!: 25 of Gaming's Greatest Sidekicks". Maximum PC. 2011-11-22. Retrieved 2011-12-30. 
  30. ^"Top 10 Tuesday: Best Sidekicks – PS2 Feature at IGN". Retrieved 2011-12-30. 
  31. ^"Top 10 Sidekicks". ScrewAttack's Top 10. Archived from the original on 2012-01-03. Retrieved 2011-12-30. 
  32. ^"20 Top Video Game Sidekicks Of All Time". 2011-09-23. Archived from the original on 2012-01-02. Retrieved 2011-12-30. 
  33. ^"The 10 Most Underrated Sidekicks Ever". Maxim. Archived from the original on 2011-02-11. Retrieved 2011-12-30. 
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  • CHE Research Paper 112 (PDF , 2,904kb) Socioeconomic inequality of access to healthcare: Does patients’ choice explain the gradient? Evidence from the English NHS - ‌‌‌‌‌‌‌Giuseppe Moscelli, Luigi Siciliani, Nils Gutacker and Richard Cookson Citation formats
  • CHE Research Paper 111 (PDF , 3,600kb) ‌‌‌‌Do patients choose hospitals that improve their health? - Nils Gutacker, Luigi Siciliani, Giuseppe Moscelli and Hugh Gravelle Lay Summary 111 (PDF , 358kb) Citation formats
  • CHE Research Paper 110 (PDF , 2,412kb) Productivity of the English NHS: 2012/13 update - Chris BojkeAdriana CastelliKatja Grasic and Andrew Street‌‌‌ Citation formats
  • CHE Research Paper 109 (PDF , 2,894kb) ‌Country-level cost-effectiveness thresholds: initial estimates and the need for further research - Beth WoodsPaul RevillMark Sculpher and Karl Claxton Citation formats
  • CHE Research Paper 108 (PDF , 1,602kb) Cost analysis of the legal declaratory relief requirement for withdrawing Clinically Assisted Nutrition and Hydration (CANH) from patients in the Permanent Vegetative State (PVS) in England and Wales - Adam Formby, Richard Cookson and Simon Halliday Citation formats
  • CHE Research Paper 107 (PDF , 1,666kb) Health care expenditures, age, proximity to death and morbidity: implications for an ageing population - Daniel Howdon and Nigel Rice Lay Summary 107 (PDF , 433kb) Citation formats


  • CHE Research Paper 106 (PDF , 1,980kb) Patient choice and the effects of hospital market structure on mortality for AMI, hip fracture and stroke patients - Hugh GravelleGiuseppe MoscelliRita Santos and Luigi Siciliani‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌
  • CHE Research Paper 105 (PDF , 1,930kb)‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌ The impact of hospital financing on the quality of inpatient care in England - Stephen Martin, Andrew Street, Lu Han and John Hutton
  • CHE Research Paper 104 (PDF , 1,821kb)‌‌‌‌‌‌‌ Understanding the differences in in-hospital mortality between Scotland and England - Maria Jose Aragon and Martin Chalkley
  • CHE Research Paper 103 (PDF , 1,811kb) The costs of specialised care - ‌Chris Bojke, Katja Grašič and Andrew Street. Accompanying spreadsheet CHERP103 descriptive statisitcs (MS Excel , 1,556kb)
  • CHE Research Paper 102 (PDF , 2,233kb)‌ ‌‌‌Testing the bed-blocking hypothesis: does higher supply of nursing and care homes reduce delayed hospital discharges? - James Gaughan, Hugh Gravelle and Luigi Siciliani
  • CHE Research Paper 101 (PDF , 1,619kb) Addressing missing data in patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs): Implications for comparing provider performance - Manuel Gomes, Nils Gutacker, Chris Bojke and Andrew Street
  • CHE Research Paper 100 (PDF , 460kb) The impact of diabetes on employment in Mexico - Till Seuring, Yevgeniy Goryakin and Marc Suhrcke
  • CHE Research Paper 99 (PDF , 694kb) WHO decides what is fair? International HIV treatment guidelines, social value judgements and equitable provision of lifesaving antiretroviral therapy - Paul Revill, Miqdad Asaria, Andrew Phillips, Diana M Gibb and Charles F Gilks.
  • CHE Research Paper 98 (PDF , 592kb) Using cost-effectiveness thresholds to determine value for money in low-and middle-income country healthcare systems: Are current international norms fit for purpose? - Paul Revill, Simon Walker, Jason Madan, Andrea Ciaranello, Takondwa Mwase, Diana M Gibb, Karl Claxton and Mark J Sculpher.
  • CHE Research Paper 97 (PDF , 1,259kb) Financial mechanisms for integrating funds for health and social care: an evidence review - Anne Mason, Maria Goddard and Helen Weatherly. Anne Mason made a presentation of the research at the 14th International Conference on Integrated Care, Brussels 2nd-4th April 2014. Presentation (PDF , 550kb)
  • CHE Research Paper 96 (PDF , 2,352kb) The importance of multimorbidity in explaining utilisation and costs across health and social care settings: evidence from South Somerset’s Symphony Project - Panos Kasteridis, Andrew Street, Matthew Dolman, Lesley Gallier, Kevin Hudson, Jeremy Martin and Ian Wyer. Health Service Journal 10 April 2014 and data video.
  • CHE Research Paper 95 (PDF , 967kb) Network meta-analysis of (individual patient) time to event data alongside (aggregate) count data - Pedro Saramago, Ling-Hsiang Chuang and Marta Soares.
  • CHE Research Paper 94 (PDF , 969kb) Productivity of the English National Health Service from 2004/5: updated to 2011/12 - Chris Bojke, Adriana Castelli, Katja Grašič and Andrew Street. Accompanying spreadsheet covering NHS productivity from 1998/9 to 2011/12 National Productivity (94) (MS Excel , 1,704kb) 




  • CHE Research Paper 93 (PDF , 856kb) The influence of cost-effectiveness and other factors on NICE decisions - Helen Dakin, Nancy Devlin, Yan Feng, Nigel Rice, Phill O’Neill and David Parkin
  • CHE Research Paper 92 (PDF , 974kb) Distributional cost-effectiveness analysis: a tutorial - Miqdad Asaria, Susan Griffin and Richard Cookson
  • CHE Research Paper 91 (PDF , 1,278kb) Distributional cost-effectiveness of health care programmes - Miqdad Asaria, Susan Griffin, Richard Cookson, Sophie Whyte and Paul Tappenden
  • CHE Research Paper 90 (PDF , 1,074kb) Attributing a monetary value to patients' time: A contingent valuation approach - Bernard van den Berg, Amiram Gafni and France Portrait
  • CHE Research Paper 89 (PDF , 566kb) Competition, prices, and quality in the market for physician consultations - Hugh Gravelle, Anthony Scott, Peter Sivey and Jongsay Yong
  • CHE Research Paper 88 (PDF , 1,782kb) Does quality affect patients’ choice of doctor? Evidence from the UK - Rita Santos, Hugh Gravelle and Carol Propper
  • CHE Research Paper 87 (PDF , 3,728kb) NHS Productivity from 2004/5 to 2010/11 - Chris Bojke, Adriana Castelli, Katja Grasic, Andrew Street and Padraic Ward. Accompanying spreadsheet National Productivity (MS Excel , 601kb)  Press Release 87 (PDF , 32kb)
  • CHE Research Paper 86 (PDF , 1,648kb) Long term care provision, hospital length of stay and discharge destination for hip fracture and stroke patients - James Gaughan, Hugh Gravelle, Rita Santos and Luigi Siciliani Lay summary 86 (PDF , 531kb)
  • CHE Research Paper 85 (PDF , 968kb) Choice of contracts for quality in health care: Evidence from the British NHS - Eleonora Fichera, Hugh Gravelle, Mario Pezzino and Matt Sutton
  • CHE Research Paper 84 (PDF , 552kb) The quality of life of female informal caregivers: From Scandinavia to the Mediterranean Sea - Cinzia Di Novi, Rowena Jacobs and Matteo Migheli
  • CHE Research Paper 83 (PDF , 1,068kb) Expected health benefits of additional evidence: Principles, methods and applications - Karl Claxton, Susan Griffin, Hendrik Koffijberg and Claire McKenna PCORI Technical Appendix (PDF , 983kb)
  • CHE Research Paper 82 (PDF , 624kb) Does a hospital's quality depend on the quality of other hospitals? A spatial econometrics approach to investigating hospital quality competition - Hugh Gravelle, Rita Santos and Luigi Siciliani Lay Summary 82 (PDF , 397kb)
  • ‌CHE Research Paper 81 (PDF , 3,781kb)  ‌Revised version November 2013. Methods for the estimation of the NICE cost effectiveness threshold - Karl Claxton, Steve Martin, Marta Soares, Nigel Rice, Eldon Spackman, Sebastian Hinde, Nancy Devlin, Peter C Smith and Mark Sculpher


  • CHE Research Paper 80 (PDF , 1,256kb) Hospital quality competition under fixed prices - Hugh Gravelle, Rita Santos, Luigi Siciliani and Rosalind Goudie ‌
  • CHE Research Paper 79 (PDF , 342kb) Well-being and psychological consequences of temporary contracts: The case of younger Italian employees - Vincenzo Carrieri, Cinzia Di Novi, Rowena Jacobs and Silvana Robone
  • CHE Research Paper 78 (PDF , 1,697kb) English hospitals can improve their use of resources: An analysis of costs and length of stay for ten treatments - James Gaughan, Anne Mason, Andrew Street and Padraic Ward‎‌‎ Press Release 78 (PDF , 135kb) Hospital Rankings (MS Excel , 190kb)
  • CHE Research Paper 77 (PDF , 475kb) Coverage with evidence development, only in research, risk sharing or patient access scheme? A framework for coverage decisions - Simon Walker, Mark Sculpher, Karl Claxton and Steve Palmer
  • CHE Research Paper 76 (PDF , 847kb) Productivity of the English National Health Service 2003-4 to 2009-10 - Chris Bojke, Adriana Castelli, Rosalind Goudie, Andrew Street and Padraic Ward  ‌
  • CHE Research Paper 75 (PDF , 765kb) Twenty years of using economic evaluations for reimbursement decisions. What have we achieved? - Michael Drummond  Press Release 75 (PDF , 176kb)
  • CHE Research Paper 74 (PDF , 521kb) Analysing hospital variation in health outcome at the level of EQ-5D dimensions - Nils Gutacker, Chris Bojke, Silvio Daidone, Nancy Devlin and Andrew Street


  • CHE Research Paper 73 (PDF , 358kb)  Modelling individual patient hospital expenditure for general practice budgets - Hugh GravelleMark Dusheiko, Steve Martin, Pete Smith, Nigel Rice and Jennifer Dixon
  • CHE Research Paper 72 (PDF , 227kb)‌‎‌   Keep it simple? predicting primary health care costs with measures of morbidity and multimorbidity - Samuel L Brilleman, Hugh Gravelle, Sandra Hollinghurst, Sarah Purdy, Chris Salisbury and Frank Windmeijer
  • CHE Research Paper 71 (PDF , 325kb)‌‎   Estimating the costs of specialised care: Updated analysis using data for 2009/10 - Silvio Daidone and Andrew Street
  • ‌CHE Research Paper 70 (PDF , 419kb) NICE’s social value judgements about equity in health and health care - Koonal K Shah, Richard CooksonAnthony J. Culyer and Peter Littlejohns
  • CHE Research Paper 69 (PDF , 1,860kb)    Uncertainty, evidence and irrecoverable costs: informing approval, pricing and research decisions for health technologies - Karl ClaxtonStephen Palmer, Louise Longworth, Laura BojkeSusan GriffinClaire McKennaMarta SoaresEldon Spackman and Jihee Youn Press Release 69 (PDF , 16kb)‌‎‌‎‎
  • CHE Research Paper 68 (PDF , 381kb)‌‎‌‎‎ Truly inefficient or providing better quality of care? analysing the relationship between risk-adjusted hospital costs and patients’ health outcomes - Nils Gutacker, Chris Bojke, Silvio Daidone


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