Ways To End An Argumentative Essay Topic

How to Write an Argumentative Essay on any Topic

Published 4/24/2013

What is an Argumentative Essay?

An argumentative essay is an essay on any topic which discusses a topic and then makes an argument based on the discussion.

An effective argumentative essay must contain certain elements that will persuade your audience to see things from your perspective. During your essay planning, it’s important to consider your own points, known as the “pro” points, as well as strong arguments for the other side, known as the “con” points in order to shoot them down, making your essay more convincing.

How to Choose a Topic for an Argumentative Essay

In order to write a good essay, you need to find a topic that’s interesting, so that you can easily demonstrate your writing skills and finally get a high grade.

One of the best ways to find a topic for an argumentative essay is to perform a search for topics related to some compelling subject, like politics, religion, abortion, education or home life.

Using the following links, you can find a lot of good topics for your argumentative essay:

200 Prompts for Argumentative Writing

50 Argument Essay Topics

100 Argument or Position Essay Topics

Argumentative Essay Structure

Making sure to select the right structure for your essay is one of the key points of success. Sticking to a recommended essay structure is the best way to properly outline and write it, paragraph by paragraph from the introduction to conclusion, without mistakes.

An argumentative essay is organized according to one of these five patterns: pro-con, con-pro, 3-con, claim / counterclaim or alternating.

PRO-CON Pattern

Recommended for short school essays on any topic.

In this simple pattern for an argumentative essay, you discuss two pro points and one con point.

This pattern contains five paragraphs: introduction, conclusion, and three paragraphs, one for each pro or con point.

CON-PRO Pattern

Recommended for short school essays on any topic.

This pattern for an argumentative essay is very similar to the previous one, but the con point comes first.

The pattern contains five paragraphs: introduction, conclusion, and three paragraphs, one for each pro or con point.

3-CON Pattern

Recommended for short school essays on any topic.

In this pattern for an argumentative essay you don’t explicitly present any particular point, but instead refute three con points.

The pattern contains five paragraphs: introduction, conclusion, and three paragraphs, one for each CON point.

Claim / Counterclaim Pattern

Recommended for advanced school and college essays on any topic.

This pattern for an argumentative essay is more advanced than the previous three, and allows for a more complete development of your argument.

The pattern contains an introduction, a conclusion, and two main parts. In the three paragraphs of the first body part, you refute or rebut three points of the counterclaim. In three paragraphs of the second body part, you make three points in support of your main idea, and provide support for your claims.

Alternating Pattern

Recommended for advanced school and college essays on any topic.

This structure for an argumentative essay provides another option for claim and counterclaim discussion.

The pattern contains an introduction, a conclusion, and three main sections. In two paragraphs of each ,main section,, you refute or rebut one point of the counterclaim and provide one point supporting your claim.

Did you choose an argumentative essay pattern? Great! Now...

After choosing an essay pattern, now all you need is to write your essay, on any topic, according to your chosen structure. Also, be sure to read the A+ writing tips for an argumentative essay on any topic below. Follow these instructions and you will write an excellent argumentative essay.

Writing an A+ Argumentative Essay

Introduction

In an argumentative essay, the introduction is very important. It is where you lay out the main argument that your essay will make, and it gives the reader his/her first impression of your essay.

Start with brief background Information

Every pet owner knows that there are enormous responsibilities that go along with having a cat or dog. You must feed and exercise your pet to keep it physically healthy; you must play with it, and keep it emotionally healthy, too. You have to keep it safe from cars, people, or other animals, and you need to protect other people, property, or pets from your own animal.

Introduce the Topic of Your Essay

There’s another responsibility that not all pet owners think about, however: spaying or neutering, or “fixing.” What does “fixing” your pet mean? Simply put, it means taking your pet to the vet for a quick, cheap surgery that will prevent your pet from ever reproducing.

Explain Why it’s Important

This surgery solves problems that pet owners know about, and some that they might not have considered before.

State Your Position clearly

I believe that all pet owners should be required to have their pets fixed.

Counterclaim refutation paragraph

Clearly state the point

Spaying surgery is expensive.
Spaying surgery is risky.

Persuasively refute or rebut the point using evidence
(logical explanation, facts, statistics, well-known authority opinions)

To refute the point is to prove it is incorrect:

Almost all cities have a fund to help pay for the surgery. Just ask your vet or the local S.P.C.A. (Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals). The cost can be as low as $10.

To rebut the point is to prove that it is irrelevant or not powerful enough:

Spaying or neutering when your pet is young and healthy is almost 100% safe.
On other hand, your animal is in much more danger if it is not fixed, for the urge to run away from home will put your pet in extremely dangerous situations.

Turn this point to the opposite point, thus supporting your thesis

Therefore, there is no way we can agree with this point. Spaying or neutering should be done as soon as you get your pet.

Claim supporting paragraph

Clearly state the point

Spaying is good for the health of your pet.

Provide the supporting evidents (logical explanation, facts, statistics, well-known authority opinions)

Animals who are not fixed can sometimes go crazy trying to find mates. They can injure themselves trying to escape from their homes, or they may fight with other animals when they have escaped. Of course, while running free, they are in danger from cars. And finally, for females who become mothers, we must remember that giving birth is not a safe process.

Restate the argument as a proved thesis

For the ordinary pet owner, all these reasons should be strong enough to convince them to “fix” their dear pet.

Conclusion

The conclusion of an argumentative essay is just as important as the introduction. The conclusion reiterates your point, and reminds the reader that you have convinced them of your argument. The conclusion is the last part of the essay that your reader will experience.

Restate (do not repeat) your claim

No matter how you look at it, there’s really no valid reason not to spay or neuter your pet.

Briefly recount the arguments

Whether you consider the potential suffering of unborn animals, the health and comfort of your own pet, or your own convenience as a pet owner, you must agree that the facts all show that spaying or neutering is the way to go.

End by showing the importance of your conclusion

It’s not only the convenient choice, but also the morally right choice, and one that all pet owners should make.

Finalizing your Work

Pay attention that even though your essay is fully written, it still isn’t ready to submission.

There are some common and annoying mistakes which may significantly harm your grade. However, you can avoid those grade lowering mistakes by completing the following checklist:

  • Check spelling and grammar
  • Ensure that your essay is fully compliant with the required formatting standard
  • Properly organize all the citations and the References / Works Cited page
  • Ensure that your title page is done as required
  • Take a final look at your paper to be certain that everything is indeed fine

Three Styles of Essay Conclusion

Download a PDF of this resource HERE.

  

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

The style of essay conclusions is as varied as the personalities of the writers and the topics they write about. However, they are all variations of three kinds of conclusions:ones that summarize; ones that editorialize; and ones that externalize. Grammar school and high school teachers often insist on the summary conclusion because it demonstrates an ability to encapsulate your writing concisely by reducing it to its main points. In college composition, though, where the topics are more complex and your writing is, likewise, more sophisticated, other methods of conclusion can bring to bear your individual voice, your creativity, even your politics, without violating the essay's topic.

ENDING WHERE YOU BEGAN

We take it for granted that conclusions must finish an essay, but in truth they are usually unnecessary:everything an essay needs is satisfied by the statement of its thesis in the introduction and by the development of its points in the body. Conclusions are, for the most part, rhetorical:they provide a "finish" that creates a dramatic effect. They leave the reader feeling as though an essay is rounded off, polished, balanced and symmetrical. Why readers demand this effect is up for debate, but here are some ways to think about that polish:

Narrative Sequencing:How an Idea is "Told"

As in paragraph development, sequencing provides a "flow" of ideas and a coherent pattern of development to an essay. However, whether that sequencing is chronological, spatial or emphatic, it still approximates a narrative thread--only with ideas instead of story events and characters--and readers like their essays to appear to have a narrative structure just like a good story. The satisfaction that comes from a good ending to a story is created by a sense of balance, symmetry and resolution. In essay writing, a good conclusion creates for the reader the feeling that resolution has been achieved, and resolution provides a sense of balance to the essay's "narrative."

Structure: How an Idea Is Organized

Essays follow a pattern of organization that structures the development of ideas, both for the writer and the reader. Regardless of the mode of that pattern (process analysis; comparison-contrast; classification-division; descriptive-narrative; etc.), most essays have an introduction:one or more paragraphs that "bookend" the discussion on the front end. Because readers look for symmetry, they enjoy one or more paragraphs at the back end of the essay--the other "bookend" to give the essay's structure its harmonious balance. Here's another analogy to help put this idea into perspective:filmmaking. If we think of essays as documentary films, and introductions as the camera "zooming in" to a topic from the general to the specific, then conclusions are the camera "zooming out" again.

 
Relevance: How an Idea Relates to Others

Unless you are assigned to write a broad survey or overview of a subject in the style of an encyclopedic article, most likely your essay will focus on a specific topic. A topic, however, is selected from a range of topics that fall under the heading of a subject. Another way to express balance and resolution in a conclusion is by demonstrating to the reader how your topic relates to others:to reveal the system of ideas in which your topic exists. If the introduction invites readers to focus their view narrowly on a single issue or topic, then the conclusion invites them to broaden their view and take in the bigger picture again. This could mean relating your essay's topic back to the subject, or it could mean connecting it to another topic that is related by subject. The satisfaction of such a conclusion comes from feeling that a single idea is balanced against others, and that the world of ideas in the essay is balanced with the world of ideas outside of it.


THREE WAYS TO CONCLUDE

A conclusion is best explained by comparing or contrasting it with the introduction to which it is symmetrical. Here is a sample introduction on the topic of voters ages 18 to 21.In the sample conclusions that will follow, take note of how the key features of the introduction are used differently to create different effects of balance and resolution. (*Thesis is in bold.)

Democracy is an extraordinary experiment in government by the people for the people. The right to vote grants to every adult the privilege to add a unique voice to that system of self-government.While most adults understand the value of this privilege, young people under the age of twenty-one continue to demonstrate the poorest understanding of political process and, consequently, are greatly underrepresented at the polls on election day. A greater appreciation of how the political process ideally works, and of how younger voters may add to the diversityof government by the people, might begin with following a few important steps to become a better, more informed voter. Education, awareness, and active participation are all key to this process.*


SUMMARIZE

Effective for essays with technical subjects and clinical tones:reports; definitions; surveys; etc.
As a paraphrase of the thesis and a summary of main points covered in the body of the essay, this method of conclusion is appropriate for longer essays where readers might find such a reminder useful. In shorter essays of 3 to 5 pages, summary conclusions are not only unnecessary, they are cliched (and often even begin with the cliche, "In conclusion"!). Furthermore, because the point of this type of conclusion is strictly to summarize the main arguments of the essay, it should contain no reflexive references ("I feel," "in my opinion," etc.).


Example of a Summary Conclusion:

The right to vote is, indeed, a sacred privilege adding unique voices to a system of self-government. With a process of better education, improved political awareness, and more active political participation, young people under the age of twenty-one will have their own diverse and strong voices heard in elections, contributing their energies to social change and forging their own futures.
  

EDITORIALIZE

Effective for essays with strong personal connection, persuasive appeal and controversial subject matter
Depending on the subject matter, a writer may wish to conclude with a personal commentary on the essay's topic; this offers a provocative "outro-duction" where the writer can express a personal investment in the topic with an anecdote, or can reveal feelings, politics, personal positions, interpretations, concerns, etc.--all with the frank and open use of the writer's own language and identity, the same way an editorial in a newspaper would.

Example of an Editorial Conclusion:

I fear that, with a growing cynicism among young voters, a decision not to vote may seem like a means to making a disenchanted voice heard. This, however, is far from the reality. Every youthful voice lost on election day gives a greater power of control to the enemies of progress and social change. Every denied ballot places one more iron bar on the cage that imprisons our democracy. Youth voters may be a minority, but they are a powerful key to the freedom guaranteed by the democratic process. Stand up and be counted!


EXTERNALIZE

Effective for essays that focus on single issues part of broader complex topics and essays with potential for frequent digressions
Perfect for short essays and longer essays, alike, a conclusion with a transition to an external, but relevant, topic can leave readers thinking in a new direction. In fact, such a conclusion is actually a new introduction and thesis that the reader could develop into an extended discussion--a kind of "reverse hook" or transition to another potential essay. An externalizing conclusion can be a good opportunity to make use of those parts of the essay that had been edited out because they were not directly relevant to the discussion. In fact, you might gather material for such a conclusion by returning to your invention strategies and looking for other topic ideas that were explored but abandoned.

Example of an Externalizing Conclusion:

While younger voters continue to withdraw from the political process, knowing nothing and therefore believing in nothing, the greater responsibility lies with educational institutions to inspire them to become active voters. Until high schools and colleges take a more proactive role, disenfranchised young voters will grow into disenfranchised older voters. However, education in general has increasingly turned away from politics altogether in favor of greater focus on job skills. Just how educational institutions might stem the tide of decreased voter turnout is still a confounding matter for further investigation.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
While a college composition instructor may encourage you to explore different methods of writing conclusions, other instructors may have their own course-related agendas, and they may insist that a certain formula be used in your writing. Be careful to choose a method of conclusion that follows the guidelines of an essay or research paper assigned by your instructor. If you are unsure about which of these methods to conclude is permitted by the assignment, ask your instructor directly.

Last Updated: 01/13/2016

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