Punctuation - Quotation Marks and Apostrophes
Last edited by Allen Brizee on September 25, 2012 .
This resource explains how to use quotation marks and apostrophes in your writing.
Quotation marks (") are often used to indicate something said or written by another person, particularly if it is included inside your own original writing. If the quotation is embedded inside one of your own sentences, use commas:
- After getting off the ladder, Neil Armstrong intended to say, “That’s one small step for a man,” but he actually said, “That’s one small step for man.”
- The professor asked the history students a question. “Now, can someone tell me why, in 1975, we pulled our troops out of Vietnam?”
Quotation marks are also used for language used to describe something or someone, but which is not being used by most people. Some examples include nicknames, labels for things that people do not wish to talk about in detail, or new things that have not been named or identified yet:
- Alex “Frequent Flier” Hernandez is on his tenth business trip of the year!
- Do not tell anyone about our “project.”
- The Phoenix Lander on Mars uncovered “white stuff” beneath the red soil.
As you can see in the examples above, when a comma or period comes at the end of a pair of quotation marks, it goes inside the marks, not outside. However, if you are using quotation marks for a special word or phrase (not quoting someone’s writing or speech), you can put question marks and exclamation marks outside the quotation:
- What did he mean by “double-down”?
Apostrophes (') are used less frequently in American English writing. They are used with an s to indicate possession by one person or thing ('s) or two or more persons or things (s'):
- Victor’s staff has been putting in too much overtime.
- Teachers’ pay has been rising faster than salaries in other sectors of the economy.
They are also a necessary part of contractions, in which words are combined or shortened:
- Don’t [do not] talk about the content of the take-home test with your classmates.
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Neil Armstrong was born in Wapakoneta, Ohio in the year 1930. His services as a pilot were called upon during the Korean War. Shortly after graduating from Purdue University in 1955, Armstrong joined the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, then known as the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. At the time the functions of the N.A.C. were to plan, direct, and conduct all United States aeronautical and space activities, except for those that were primarily military. Armstrong served as a civilian test pilot at Edwards Air Base in Lancaster, California. In 1962 Armstrong became the first civilian to enter the astronaut-training program.
Gemini VII Mission
In March of 1966, Armstrong completed his training and became the command pilot of the Gemini 8 mission. The crew of this mission was made up of David R. Scott and himself. In case of any emergencies with the two men before the launch, either physical or mental, a backup crew was made. The backup crew consisted of Charles Conrad Junior, and Richard Gordon Junior. The objectives of the mission were:
A. (Main) Rendezvous and dock with Gemini Agena target vehicle (GATV) and
conduct EVA operations.
B. (Secondary) Rendezvous and dock in the 4th revolution. Perform docked-
vehicle maneuvers, Evaluate systems and conduct 10 experiments.
The mission was set to launch on March 15, 1966. Due to minor problems with the spacecraft and launch vehicle hardware the launch was delayed one day. The launch was successful. Because of problems with the spacecraft control system, the crew was forced to undock after approximately thirty minutes. The spacecraft-target vehicle combination had begun to encounter increasing yaw and roll rates. The crew regained control of their spacecraft by using the reentry control system, which prompted and early landing in a secondary landing area in the Pacific after 10 hours, 41 minutes, and 26 seconds. No EVA was performed. An electrical short caused the failure in the control system. Docking and re-rendezvous secondary objectives were not achieved due to the shortened mission.
Apollo 11 mission
The Apollo 11 mission was funded under the Nixon administration during the heat of the space race with the Russians. The main purpose of this launch was to put a man on the moon, and successfully back down to Earth. The crew consisted of three men, two of which would walk on the moon. Edwin Aldrin Junior of the United Stated Air Force, Armstrong, and Lieutenant Colonel Michael Collins, also of the U.S. airforce made up the crew. Collins remained in the Lunar Orbit following the separation, piloting the command and service module. The Lunar Module descended to the surface of the moon on July 20, landing at the edge of Mare Tranquilitatis. A few hours later, Armstrong, in his somewhat bulky space suit, descended the latter and, at 10:56 PM (Eastern Standard Time) stepped onto the surface of the moon. His first words, which will forever go down in history were, "That's one small step for manâ¦. One giant leap for mankind." Aldrin soon joined him, and the two astronauts spent more then two hours walking on the lunar surface. They gathered 47 pounds of soil samples, took photographs, and set up solar wind equipment, a laser beam reflector, and a seismic experiment package. The two men also put up an American flag, and talked, by satellite communications, with United States President Richard Nixon in the White House. The men found that walking and running at one-sixth the gravity of Earth was not difficult. Also by satellite communication, millions of people watched live television broadcast from the moon. Returning to the Lunar Module, and taking off their space suits, the two astronauts rested several hours before takeoff. They left the moon in the ascent stage of the Lunar Module, after docking with the command and service module and the transfer of the astronauts to the spacecraft. The return flight of the Apollo 11 was without mishap and the vehicle splashed down and was recovered on July 24 in the Pacific Ocean, close to Hawaii.
Due to fears of terrestrial contamination by living lunar organisms, the astronauts put on biological isolation garments before leaving the spacecraft. They were placed under quarantine for three weeks. Both men remained in good health. The mission was completely successful. It also set the stage for future space exploration and lunar landings.
Life after Apollo 11
After his years as a pilot during the Korean War, and becoming commander of both the Gemini 8 and the Apollo 11 missions, not to mention being the first civilian to enter NASA's astronaut program, and the first man to walk on the moon, Neil Armstrong retired from the space program. In 1971 he became a professor of Aerospace engineering at the University of Cincinnati. Neil Armstrong still lives today, a very proud and accomplished man.
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