Bibliography Harvard System Of Referencing Tool

Harvard citation generator: Get automated help with your references

Do you know what plagiarism is? Well, it is using the ideas of other people, without citing or acknowledging their roles in the production of such kind of work. Providing an accurate citation is one of the most effective ways of avoiding plagiarism. Using the Harvard citation generator is one of the most effective ways and methods of avoiding plagiarism. This is an automated system that allows you to generate citations for your paper. Note that, the Harvard reference style is not difficult to master.

It is one of the simplest styles of references that you can use to write your paper. Nonetheless, to save time, you can always rely on an auto citation Harvard reference system. The results of using such kind of a system are instant, and all that is required is for you to provide the name of your resources or materials that you want to use for the purpose of referencing your paper using Harvard citation style. On this basis, our Harvard online citation generation system will help you with your citations. The Harvard citation machine that we use is reliable and accurate. At no given time will these machines produce citations that are not correct. Furthermore, our citation generators are constantly updated for purposes of ensuring that they produce Harvard reference and citations that are up to date.

Note that, there are a number of other styles of referencing that can be used to reference your paper. Another style is APA. Most universities that are using the American system of education prefer to use the APA for purposes of referencing their papers. Other popular styles are MLA, Oxford, and Chicago. Nonetheless, if you are stuck with your paper, and are unable to format it using the mentioned styles, you can ask for professional assistance from us. We are available 24/7, and ready to help you.

Moreover, the following are the steps you should not ignore when writing your paper. If you follow these steps, you will definitely avoid the submission of plagiarized work. The following are the steps:

  • Understanding of questions: You must first understand the question that is being asked, and come up with an approach that you want to use in answering it. This process also involves formulating a unique and original thesis.
  • Data collection: Begin the process of collecting data. Ensure that the materials you use are relevant and will help you prove your thesis.
  • Analysis: Analyze the data collected. This will include picking up the relevant information that will help to prove your thesis. This is an important step, because any information that you use from the sources must be referenced. When using Harvard reference style, ensure that all the materials and sources used for your paper are properly referenced at the end of your paper.

When you follow these strategies, chances of you coming up with a unique and non-plagiarized paper are high. This is because you will be writing your paper from scratch, and any borrowed work will be well cited. You can always seek professional assistance when you are not able to write your papers from scratch.

Harvard reference generator: Get automated Harvard citation and improve the quality of your paper

Well, if you want to benefit from our Harvard reference generator, you can ask us to write your paper for you. Our generator has the capability of providing accurate Harvard citation; thus, you will not need to write the citations manually. One of the benefits you will enjoy once you get a paper from us is that your paper will be revised for free. We do not tolerate low quality work; hence, you have a right to request a write to revise your work, in case the solution provided is wrong.

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Select a heading below:

Acts of parliament

Link to this section

Example citation

The 1996 Housing Act OR, if using a ‘direct quote’, the 1996 Housing Act (1996:13)


Reference elements

Short title of the Act and Year. (chapter number of the Act, abbreviated to ‘c.’) Place of publication: Publisher.

Reference example

Housing Act 1996. (c.52) London: HMSO.

Variants

Acts introduced prior to 1963

Reference elements

Short title of the Act and Year. (Year of reign of the monarch at the time the Act was introduced the monarch’s name which can be abbreviated, chapter number of the Act) Place of publication: Publisher.

Reference example

Charities Act 1960. (8&9 Eliz. 2, c.58) London: HMSO.

Key points

  • Unlike the other citation formats, when citing by paraphrasing, the year of publication does not need to be placed in brackets as this forms part of the title of the Act. However when using a direct quote, the year should also be placed in brackets, followed by the page number as shown in the example above.
  • Unlike the other referencing formats, the year of publication does not need to be placed in brackets as this forms part of the title of the Act, as shown in the example above.
  • For Acts of parliament that are published by Her Majesty’s Stationery Office (HMSO), the abbreviated versions of the publisher’s name can be used in the reference list.

Annual reports

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Annual reports print copy

Example citation

(eBay, 2011) OR, if using a ‘direct quote’, (eBay, 2011:8)

Reference elements

Name of company. (Year of publication) Title of annual report (in italics). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example reference

eBay. (2011) Annual Report 2011. San Jose: eBay Inc.

Annual reports online copy

Example citation

(British Geological Survey, 2010) OR, if using a ‘direct quote’, (British Geological Survey, 2010:online)

Reference elements

Name of company. (Year of publication) Title of annual report (in italics). [Online] [Date accessed] URL

Reference example

British Geological Survey. (2010) Annual report 2010-2011. [Online] [Accessed on 24th April 2012] http://www.bgs.ac.uk/downloads/

Key points

  • To cite and reference an annual report you will generally have to use the organisation’s name as an author name is usually not present.

App content

Link to this section

Citation elements

Direct quotes: The originator of the app, the year the app was released and the word app.

Example citation

(Morgan, 2012) OR, if using a ‘direct quote’, (Morgan, 2012:app)


Reference elements

Owner/creator. (Year (Use year accessed if release date is not available)). ‘Title of app content.’ Publisher or Producer (if ascertainable). Title of app (in italics).Version number. [App] [Date accessed]

Example reference

Morgan, J. (2012) ‘Business marketing lecture.’ Duke University. iTunes-U. Version 1.9.11. [App] [Accessed on 25th January 2012]

Apps

Link to this section

Example citation

(Skyscape, 2010) OR, if using a ‘direct quote’, (Skyscape, 2010:app)


Reference elements

Originator/s. (Year) (Use year accessed if release date is not available) Title of app. (in italics) Version number (if known). [App] [Date accessed]

Example reference

Skyscape. (2010) Skyscape medical resources. Version 1.9.11. [App] [Accessed on 18th January 2011]

Archive material

Link to this section

Citation elements

The surname of the author of the material and the year.

Example citation

(Davies, 1992) OR, if using a ‘direct quote’, (Davies, 1992:32)


Archive material can be various types of source material and as such, the format may differ depending on the type of material. When referencing archive material, the archive collection details are just as important as the details of the material itself.

General rules

  • Follow the usual format specific to the source (see first example below for a journal article located in an online archive collection), followed by the archive collection details and archive location (physical or online).
  • Add the [Medium] in square brackets, if the type of medium is not identifiable by the title or by the elements specific to the source, as shown in the third example below.
  • Include any reference numbers if provided on the source, as shown in the third example below.

    Archive material accessed online

    Reference elements (include each of the elements below as applicable)

    Author surname, initial. (year of publication/creation) Title of material (in italics) {and/or any other elements specific to the source} (source reference number in brackets). [Medium (if required)] Archive collection title. [Online] [Access date] URL

    Example references

    Davis, D. (1992) 'This wonderful life.' Broadsheet, 9(3) pp. 29-34. National Association for the Teaching of Drama Archive. [Online] [Accessed on 21st April 2017] http://www.mantleoftheexpert.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/NATD.v.9.3-1993.pdf

    Freud, S. (1934) Postcard to Saul Rosenzweig. Sigmund Freud papers: general correspondence, 1871-1996. Library of Congress Digital Collections. [Online] [Accessed on 20th April 2017] https://www.loc.gov/resource/mss39990.04022/?sp=2

    Heathcote, D. (no date) Some very early notes on Mantle of the Expert (AC115-DH). [Annotated typescript] Dorothy Heathcote Archive. [Online] [Accessed on 24th April 2017] http://www.mantleoftheexpert.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/AC115-DH-Some-very-early-notes-on-moe.pdf

    Archive material viewed physically

    Reference elements

    Author surname, initial. (year of publication/creation) Title of material (in italics) {and/or any other elements specific to the source} (source reference number in brackets). [Medium (if required)] Archive collection title. Location of archive/collection.

    Example reference

    Legh, P. (1729) Letter to Francis Leicester July 24th (DLT C35/74). Leicester-Warren Family of Tabley Records. Cheshire Archives and Local Studies, Chester.

Bills

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Citation elements

Title of Bill. (Year)

Example citation

Homelessness Reduction Bill (2016)

Reference elements

Title of Bill. (Year) The House in which the Bill originated. (Bill no. and parliamentary session/year) Place of publication: Publisher.

Example references

Homelessness Reduction Bill. (2016) House of Commons. (Bill 7 2016-2017) London: TSO.

Children and Social Work Bill. (2017) House of Lords. (Bill 121 2016-2017) London: TSO.

Key points

  • Use the House in which the Bill originated i.e. House of Commons or House of Lords.

Books/eBooks

Link to this section

Example citation

(Cottrell, 2011) OR, if using a ‘direct quote’, (Cottrell, 2011:97)


Reference elements

Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) Title of book (in italics). Edition if applicable., Place of publication: Publisher.

Example reference

Cottrell, S. (2011) Critical thinking skills: developing effective analysis and argument. 2nd ed., Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Case Law

Link to this section

Example citation

(Alternative Power Solution Ltd v Central Electricity Board, 2014) OR, if using a ‘direct quote’, (Alternative Power Solution Ltd v Central Electricity Board, 2014:884)


Reference elements

Party Names (separated by a ‘v’ and in italics) [Year the case was heard] Volume number (if available) Law Report abbreviation Start page.

Example references

Alternative Power Solution Ltd v Central Electricity Board. [2014] 4 All ER 882.

Mountgarrett (Rt Hon Viscount) v Claro Water Board. (1963) 15 P & CR 53.

Key points

  • The use of round and square brackets:
  • Square brackets are used when the date is essential to locate the case, because there multiple volumes each year.
  • If the date is not essential to locate the case, because there is only one volume per year, the year should be entered in round brackets.

Chapter in an edited book

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Use this format when you are using an edited book where the chapters are written by different authors.


Example citation

Note: The author whose surname you use will be the chapter’s author, not the editor of the book.

(Dickson, 2006) OR, if using a ‘direct quote’, (Dickson, 2006:167)


Reference elements

Surname of the author/s who wrote the chapter, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of the chapter.’ In (in italics) Surname of the editor/s, Initial/s. (ed/s.) Title of book (in italics). Edition if applicable., Place of publication: Publisher, first and last page numbers of the chapter.

Example reference

Dickson, D. (2006) ‘Reflecting.’ In Hargie, O. (ed.) The handbook of communication skills. 3rd ed., London: Routledge, pp. 165-194.


Note:

If the publication date of the chapter is different to the publication date of the book, you need to include both dates in your reference, as follows:

Reference elements

Surname of the author/s who wrote the chapter, Initial/s. (Year of publication of chapter) ‘Title of the chapter.’ In (in italics) Surname of the editor/s, Initial/s. (ed/s.) (Year of publication of book) Title of book (in italics). Edition if applicable., Place of publication: Publisher, first and last page numbers of the chapter.

Example reference

Debord, G. (1955) ‘Introduction to a critique of urban geography.’ In Di Mauro, S. E. and Bauder, H. (eds.) (2008) Critical geographies: a collection of readings. Canada: Praxis Press, pp. 23-27.

Key points

  • When you are using different chapters within the edited book, each chapter you cite will have a separate entry in your reference list.

Company data/reports from company financial databases

Link to this section

Example citation

(Bureau van Dijk, 2015) OR, if using a ‘direct quote’, (Bureau van Dijk, 2015:online)


Reference elements

Name of organisation (owner of database). (Year of report) Title of report. Title of database. (in italics) [Online] [Date accessed] URL

Example reference

Bureau van Dijk. (2015) Arcadia Group Limited company report. FAME. [Online] [Accessed on 15th July 2015] https://fame-bvdinfo-com.ezproxy.mmu.ac.uk/version-201572/Search.QuickSearch.serv?_CID=1&context=1NQ68UOWXT7ZWPY

Company reports

Link to this section

Follow the format for an Annual report when using information from a company report which has been produced and published by the company itself.

Computer/video games

Link to this section

Example citation

(Ubisoft, 2011)


Reference elements

Creator/Developer. (Year of release) Title (in italics). Edition or Version (if applicable). Platform. [Game] Place of publication/distribution: Publisher/Distribution company.

Example reference

Ubisoft. (2010) Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood. Standard edition. Xbox. [Game] Montreal: Ubisoft.

Online/download version

Reference elements

Creator/Developer. (Year of release) Title (in italics). Edition or Version (if applicable). Platform. [Game] [Access date] URL

Example reference

Blue Byte Mainz. (2015) Anno 2205. Standard edition. PC. [Game] [Accessed on 1st August 2016] http://store.ubi.com/uk/anno-2205/56c4947888a7e300458b4570.html#start=29

Conference papers (published and unpublished) and conference proceedings

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Published conference paper

Citation elements

Surname of author of paper and the year

Example citation

(Kuznetsov and Kutnetsova, 2001) OR, if using a ‘direct quote’, (Kuznetsov and Kutnetsova, 2001:480)


Reference elements

Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of conference paper.’ In (in italics) Name of organisation. Title of conference (including number of annual conference if given) (in italics). Volume number if applicable. Location of conference (venue, city), date of conference. Editor’s (or Chair’s) Surname/s, Initial/s. (ed/s.) (if given) Place of publication: Publisher, first and last page numbers of paper.

Example reference

Kuznetsov, A. and Kuznetsova, O. (2001) ‘The progress of market culture in Russia and managerial response.’ In Academy of International Business. Proceedings of the 28th annual conference of the Academy of International Business (UK chapter) International business in the 21st century: change and continuity - strategies, institutions, regulations and operations. Vol. 1. Manchester Metropolitan University Business School, Manchester, 6th–7th April 2001. McDonald, F. and Tuselman, H. (eds.) Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan University Business School, pp. 471-488.

Unpublished conference paper (paper presented at a conference)

Citation elements

Surname of presenter of paper and the year

Example citation

(Meagher, 2007) OR, if using a ‘direct quote’, (Meagher, 2007:presentation)


Reference elements

Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of conference) ‘Title of paper.’ Paper presented at: Title of conference (in italics). Location of conference (venue, city), date of conference.

Example reference

Meagher, K. (2007) ‘The importance of public affairs in the business training sector.’ Paper presented at: The Regional Public Affairs Conference: giving the North a voice in Westminster: adding value through public affairs. Manchester Metropolitan University Business School, Manchester, 20th March.

Conference proceedings

Reference elements

Name of organisation. (Year of publication) Title of conference (including number of annual conference if given) (in italics). Volume number if applicable. Location of conference (venue, city), date of conference. Editor’s (or Chair’s) Surname/s, Initial/s. (ed/s.)(if given) Place of publication: Publisher.

Example reference

Academy of International Business. (2001) Proceedings of the 28th annual conference of the Academy of International Business (UK chapter) International business in the 21st century: change and continuity - strategies, institutions, regulations and operations. Vol. 1. Manchester Metropolitan University Business School, Manchester, 6th-7th April 2001. McDonald, F. and Tuselman, H. (eds.) Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan University Business School.

Key points

  • Please note that when using information from conference papers, you need to cite the author (for published material) or presenter (for unpublished material) of the paper and not the organisation who held the conference or the editor of the conference proceedings.
  • The whole conference proceedings would usually only appear in a bibliography rather than as a cited source, as you would normally cite from a conference paper.

Discussion papers

Link to this section

Example citation

(Duncan and Trejo, 2011) OR, if using a ‘direct quote’, (Duncan and Trejo, 2011:8)


Discussion papers - online copy

Reference elements

Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) Title of paper (in italics). Organisation name discussion paper number. Place of publication: Publisher. [Online] [Date accessed] URL

Example reference

Duncan, B. and Trejo, S. J. (2011) Low-skilled immigrants and the U.S. labor market. IZA Discussion Paper no. 5964. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor. [Online] [Accessed on 3rd March 2016] http://ftp.iza.org/dp5964.pdf

Discussion papers - print copy

Reference elements

Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) Title of paper (in italics). Organisation name discussion paper number. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example reference

Duncan, B. and Trejo, S. J. (2011) Low-skilled immigrants and the U.S. labor market. IZA Discussion Paper no. 5964. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor.

Dissertations

Link to this section

Example citation

(Gillen, 1998) OR, if using a ‘direct quote’, (Gillen, 1998:33)


Reference elements

Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of submission) Title of thesis (in italics). Degree statement. Name of the awarding institution.

Example reference

Gillen, J. K. (1998) An investigation into young children’s telephone discourse. Ph.D. Manchester Metropolitan University.

Key points

  • Degree statement refers to whether the dissertation/thesis was for the award of B.A., B.Sc., M.A., M.Sc., Ph.D., etc.

eBook readers

Link to this section

Citation elements

Direct quotes: Author, year:page/location/chapter [whichever is available]

Example citation

(Burrows, 2009) OR, if using a ‘direct quote’, (Burrows, 2009:loc 23)


Reference elements

Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) Title of book (in italics). Edition if applicable., [name of ebook reader] Place of publication: Publisher.

Example reference

Burrows, A., Parsons, A., Price, G. and Pilling, G. (2009) Chemistry³: introducing inorganic, organic and physical chemistry. [Kindle Fire] Oxford: Oxford University Press.

EU documents/legislation

Link to this section

EU legislation is also known as regulations, directives, or decisions


Citation elements

When citing legislation you must include the type, number and year of the piece of legislation. The order the legislation number and year appear in the citation should follow the order they appear on the legislation document, as shown in the examples below:

Example citations

(Council Regulation, 1907/2006) OR, if using a ‘direct quote’, (Council Regulation, 1907/2006:45)

(Council Directive, 2014/94) OR, if using a ‘direct quote’, (Council Directive, 2014/94:15)


Reference elements

Legislation type. Legislation number and title. Publication details, including journal title volume (in italics) and date and page numbers.

Example references

Council Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) establishing a European Chemicals Agency. Official Journal L 396, 30/12/2006 pp. 1 – 849.

Council Directive 2014/94/EU of 22 October 2014 on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure. Official Journal L 307, 28/10/2014 pp. 1 – 20.

Exhibition catalogues

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Exhibition catalogues

Example citation

(Serpentine Gallery, 2005) OR, if using a ‘direct quote’, (Serpentine Gallery, 2005:4)

Reference elements

Surname of author/editor, initial/s. (Year) Title of catalogue (in italics). Details of exhibition (as stated on catalogue) Gallery, date. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example reference

Serpentine Gallery. (2005) Rirkrit Tiravanija: a retrospective (tomorrow is another fine day). Catalogue to accompany exhibition held at the Serpentine Gallery, 5th July to 21st August 2005. London: Serpentine Gallery.

Work of art In an exhibition catalogue

Reference elements

Surname of artist, initial. (Year) 'Title of work of art.' Description of work of art (if applicable). In (in italics) Surname of author/editor, initial/s, or, Gallery name. (Year) Title of catalogue (in italics). Details of exhibition (as stated on catalogue) Gallery, date. Place of publication: Publisher. Page number/s of Work of art.

Example reference

Tiravanija, R. (1992) ‘Untitled 1992 (free).’ Installation at 303 Gallery, New York. In Serpentine Gallery. (2005) Rirkrit Tiravanija: a retrospective (tomorrow is another fine day). Catalogue to accompany exhibition held at the Serpentine Gallery, 5th July to 21st August 2005. London: Serpentine Gallery, pp. 59-60.

Key points

  • If it is a not clear who the author/editor of the exhibition catalogue is, use the gallery name in place of the author/editor as shown in the above examples.

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